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tagmosis                                              Co-ordination or amalgamation of segments to perform some particular group of functions. Vitally important in the evolution of insects.                            

tarsomere                                 One of the elements of the tarsus.

tarsal                                         Relating to the tarsus.

tarsal claw                                 Usually one of two articulated, sclerotized, claw-like processes attached to the apex of the tarsus. These claws and the empodium comprise the pretarsus. Occasionally, there is a single claw or none at all.

tarsomere                                  One of the divisions of the tarsus.

tarsus                                        (Pl. tarsi) The fifth segment of the beetle leg, which is articulated proximally with the tibia and distally with the pretarsus; almost always subdivided into two to five tarsomeres.

tectum                                        A bodily structure resembling or serving as a roof.

tectum.                                     The upper lobe of a penis which is horizontally divided into dorsal and ventral lobes; usually referring only to the penis in Curculionoidea.

tegmina, tegmen                      Mesothoracic wings modified into protective structures especially in the blattoid-orthopteroid orders.

tegula                                        (Pl. tegulae) One of the articulated plates, at the attachment point of the fore wing. A scale-like sclerite basal to the humeral plate. It protects the

                                                   wing base from physical damage.  [picture for Hymenoptera]

temple.                                      The lateral portion of the head between the posterior edge of the eye and an abrupt narrowing of the head to form a posterior neck.

tenebrionoid aedeagus.           Aedeagus in which the phallobase (or basale) and partly to completely fused parameres together form an incomplete sheath on one side (usually dorsal) of the penis; the parameres are not individually articulated but may form a combined apical piece (apicale), which is articulated to the phallobase. In some groups there are articulated, accessory lobes attached to the apicale, and these may be confused with parameres.

tentorium                                    The internal skeleton of the insect head.

tergite                                        Primary sclerite forming dorsal surface of any body segment.

termen                                       Outer margin (of wing.).

tibia (pl. tibiae).                         The fourth and often the longest segment of the beetle leg, articulated proximally with the femur and distally with the first tarsomere.

tibial.                                          Relating to the tibia.

tibial articular area.                  The apical surface of the tibia to which the first tarsomere and tibial spurs are attached; sometimes greatly expanded on the hind leg.

tibial spur.                                         An articulated, multicellular, spur-like process located at the apex of the tibia; usually paired but occasionally single, and sometimes absent.

tornus                         Anal angle of wing.

torulus                                                  The socket on the head into which the antennae is inserted.

trachea                                                                Minute tube which permeates through the insects body carrying air to the cells.

transverse folds                               (of hind wing). Those more or less obliquely transverse folds which are involved in shortening the wing length.

transverse groove of metaventrite.                        A groove partly or completely separating the anterior portion of the metaventrite (paired preepisternites) with the posterior portion (metakatepisternum). It is more or less complete in Archostemata but is usually more or less reduced to a short groove crossing the discrimen, or completely absent.

transverse suture                           Suture running across the thorax of many flies.

triangle                                       Triangular region near the base of a dragonfly wing.

trichobothria                               In Hemiptera specialised hairs on ventral abdominal segments. (Miridae)

trilobate aedeagus.                  An aedeagus consisting of a well developed phallobase, paired articulated parameres and a sclerotized penis. This type of aedeagus occurs in many primitive Polyphaga.

triungulin                               Active first instar of the oil beetle and some of its relatives.

trochanter                                    The second segment of the leg, articulated proximally with the coxa and distally with the femur; usually a relatively small sclerite and occasionally highly reduced or absent. c.f. trochantin  [picture for Mantodea]

trochanteral.                                    Relating to the trochanter.

trochantin.                                          A precoxal sclerite articulating with the coxa, sternum and pleuron or sometimes fused to the pleuron or apparently absent.

trochantinal.                                      Relating to the trochantin.

truncate                                               To end abruptly, squared off.

tymbal                                                  Sound producing organ of cicada.

tympanum                                         Auditory membrane in certain insects.