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  M

 

macrotrichia                     c.f. microtrichia. Larger hairs, provided with sockets. The scales on the wings of Lepidoptera, Trichoptera and some Diptera and Psocptera.

mandible.                           One of the paired lateral biting jaws in beetles, lying just below the labrum and just above the maxillae. The mandible is usually relatively stout and heavily sclerotized, with one or more apical teeth, a basal mola or grinding area, a membranous prostheca distal to the mola and sometimes one or more accessory teeth.

mandibulate                     Mandibles suited to biting and chewing.

manubrium                        A narrow strut attached to the anterior end of the tegmen.

margin                                 An edge which is raised forming a narrow to moderately broad bead, lip, flange or collar.

marginal cell                    A cell in the wing bordering the outer front margin.

maxilla                                                (pl. Maxillae). One of the paired, lateral organs lying just below the mandibles and just above the labium in beetles. The maxilla usually consists of a basal cardo, the stipes or main body, an outer and inner lobe (galea and lacinia, respectively) and a maxillary palp.

maxillary lobe                  One of the two apical lobes of the maxilla (galea or lacinia).

media                                                                   Longitudinal vein running through the central region of the wing in most insects, abbreviated to M.

medial                 See Mesal. May also refer to the medial vein or medial area of the hind wing.

medial area.                     That portion of the hind wing behind the medial bar (MP1+2) and the anal fold. Also called medial field (Kukalová-Peck and Lawrence 1993).

medial fleck                     (of hind wing). A portion of the wing membrane bearing rasp-like structures and lying somewhere near the apex of the vein MP3. Also called the subcubital fleck. This structure may act as a holdfast when contacting a similar patch on the opposing wing or the underside of the elytron. Also known as a katastigma.

median.                               On the midline.

median area                     (of hind wing). That are of the hind wing between the median bar (MP1+2) and the anal fold (between AA and AP).

median bar                        (of hind wing). The posterior of the two major supporting structures of the hind wing in beetles, formed from the vein MP1+2 and in most Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga supporting the oblongum cell at or near its apex. In most Polyphaga its apex is joined to RP, forming the radio-medial loop.

median lobe.                    See Penis.

melliferious                       Producing or yielding honey.

membranous                    Thin delicate structure, usually transparent.

mesad                                      Towards the middle.

mesal                   (mesad). An adjective (or adverb) denoting position near or movement toward the midline of the body.

mesepimeron                 (pl. Mesepimera). The posterior part of the mesothoracic pleuron, the exposed portion of which is joined to the metaventrite and metepisternum and forms part of the mesocoxal articulation; another concealed portion lies beneath the elytra and extends anterodorsally to form part of the elytral articulation.

mesepisternum                                (pl. Mesepisterna). The anterior part of the mesothoracic pleuron, the exposed portion of which is joined mesally to (or sometimes fused with) the lateral edge of the mesoventrite and forms part of the mesocoxal articulation; another concealed portion lies beneath the elytron and extends anterodorsally to form part of the elytral articulation.

mesial.                                 See Mesal.

meso-.                  Prefix referring to a structure forming part of the mesothorax, including mid legs (e.g. mesocoxa, mesepisternum, mesotarsus, mesepisternum).

mesocoxal cavity.                          The countersunk sclerotized cavity for housing the mesocoxa; formed from the mesoventrite and metaventrite, usually with the addition of one or more elements of the mesopleuron (or more rarely the metapleuron). The cavity or housing is almost completely sclerotized (except where the coxa is joined by membrane). In some cases, there is no real cavity or housing present, and the coxa is attached externally by a broad membrane.

mesofemur.                       The femur of the mid leg.

mesometaventral junction.                       The meeting of the mesoventral and metaventral processes; this may consist of a simple meeting of the two processes, but in some cases a complex ball and socket joint is formed and in others the two processes are connate or completely fused.

mesonotum                       Dorsal surface of the second thoracic segment.

mesoscutellum               Hindmost of the three divisions of the mesonotum, often more or less triangular.

mesoscutum.                     The anterior part of the mesonotum in beetles, occasionally bearing a stridulatory plate. The middle division of the mesonotum.

meson                                      Median sagittal plane.

mesopleuron                    Sclerites that comprise the side walls of the mesothorax.

mesosternal cavity.                        See mesoventral cavity.

mesosternum.                  See mesoventrite.

mesotarsal.                        Referring to the tarsus (and pretarsus) of the mid leg.

mesothorax.                      The second (middle) segment of the thorax.

mesoventral cavity.                       A mesal cuticular cavity on the mesoventrite, which houses the apex of the prosternal process.

mesoventral process.                    A posterior projection of the mesoventrite which may meet an anterior projection of the metaventrite.

mesoventrite.                                   The major ventral sclerite of the mesothorax. This consists mainly of combined precoxal elements (preepisternites) fused together or separated by a discrimen. This structure is usually called the mesosternum, but the true sternum is no longer visible externally (Campau 1940, Ferris 1940, Lawrence 1999, Beutel and Haas 1999).

Meta-. Prefix referring to a structure forming part of the metathorax, including hind legs (e.g. metacoxa, metepimeron, metatibia, metaventrite).

metacoxal cavity.                           The countersunk sclerotized cavity for housing the metacoxa; formed mainly by the base of the abdomen.

metacoxal plate.                             A partial or complete, flattened, ventral projection of the metacoxa, which forms an excavated area for housing the metafemur.

metamere                                                                          Any of a linear series of primitively similar segments into which the body of a higher invertebrate or vertebrate is divisible.

metamorphosis                                              Changes seen in an insect as it transforms from larvae to adult.

metanotum                                                                       Dorsal surface of metathorax.

metapleural gland opening                     Hymenoptera – Formicinae, Notostigma carazzii.

metapleuron                                    Sclerites comprising the side wall of metathorax.

metasoma                                                          Hymenoptera – Apocrita. Abdominal segment 1 forms the propodium and the remaining abdominal segments form the metasoma. (Fig. 42.10)

metasternum.                                   See metaventrite.

metatarsus                     Basal segment of tarsus or foot.

metathorax.                                                      The third (posterior) segment of the thorax.

metaventral process.    An anterior projection of the metaventrite which usually meets a posterior projection of the mesoventrite.

metaventrite.                                    The major ventral sclerite of the metathorax. This consists mainly of combined precoxal elements (preepisternites) and paired metakatepisterna fused together or separated by a discrimen. This structure is usually called the metasternum, but the true sternum is no longer visible externally (Campau 1940, Ferris 1940, Lawrence 1999, Beutel and Haas 1999).

metendosternal laminae.           Flattened processes located on the lateral arms of the metendosternite.

metendosternite.             A ventral, median, internal invagination of the metathorax forming a complex, fork-like structure to which muscles are attached; a remnant of the original sternum.

metepimeron                    (pl. metepimera). The posterior part of the metathoracic pleuron, the exposed portion of which, if present, is relatively small, lying between the lateral edge of the transversely oriented metacoxa and the elytron and forming the main coxal articulation; another concealed portion extends anteriorly and forms part of the hind wing articulation.

metepisternum                                (pl. metepisterna). The anterior part of the metathoracic pleuron, the exposed portion of which is more or less longitudinally oriented, lying on each side of the metaventrite; another concealed portion lies beneath the elytron and extends anterodorsally to form part of the notal wing process. This structure is actually the anepisternum; the katepisternum forms the posterior end of the metaventrite.

microtrichia                                                       (aculeae) Fine hairs, irregularly scattered.

moniliform antenna.                    Antenna in which the antennomeres are about as long as wide and more or less bead-like.]

moult                                                  To shed the outer covering of the body.

mouth cavity.                                   The area enclosed by the labrum-epipharynx, mandibles, maxillae and labium-hypopharynx.

mucro.                                                 A non-articulated projection arising from the inner apex of the tibia.

mymecochory                                  Dispersal by ants. See p82 Vol 1 “The Insects of Australia”