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abdomen
Hindmost part of the three body divisions that compose an insect.
abdominal process
(intercoxal process of abdomen). Projection on ventrite 1 which extends anteriorly between metacoxae
abdominal sternite
Ventral sclerite of an abdominal segment (includes concealed as well as externally visible ones). Sternite number corresponds to that of true abdominal segment.
abdominal style
Paired abdominal appendages.
abdominal ventrite
Visible ventral abdominal sclerite. Ventrite number does not correspond to true sternite number except in rare cases where sternite 1 is visible. Also called ventrite.
abiotic
Non-living
abomasum
Fourth and final region of stomach in Ruminantia
acarinum
Small invagination in the abdomen of Old World carpenter bees providing protection for symbiotic mites.
accessory genitalia
Seen only in Odonata on sternites of second and third abdominal segments.
accessory lobes
(of apicale of tegmen). Paired articulated lobes arising from the apicale. Referred to by Spilman (1952) as lateral lobes, but the latter term usually synonymous with parameres.
accessory mesocoxal articulation
A ball and socket joint formed mesally between the mesocoxa and mesoternal or metasternal process. It may consist of a lateral process at the apex of either process and a coxal impression or, occasionally, a mesocoxal knob and mesosternal impression.
accessory procoxal articulation
A ball and socket joint formed mesally between the procoxa and prosternal process. It may consist of a prosternal knob and coxal impression or, occasionally, a coxal knob and prosternal impression.
acetylcholine
An acetyl ester of choline involved in the synaptic transmission between nerve cells.
acetylcholine esterase
Enzyme within the synaptic gap that hydrolyses acetylcholine to choline and acetic acid.
acicular
Pointed, needle shaped.
acidopore
Flexible setea fringed nozzle in formicine ants
acone eye
Eye in which ommatidia lack both crystalline cone and corneal exocone lenses.
acrostichal bristle
The two rows of setae which are seen lying on either side of the thorax in diptera.
active immunity
Resistance to a disease acquired by an animal as the result of antibody production in response to antigens.
aculeae, aculei
Minute, hair-like outgrowths of the cuticle covering the wings and other structures beneath the scales of primative moths. Microtrichia.
aculeate
To possess a sting - hymenoptera.
acuminate
Tapering down to a point.
adephagan aedeagus
Aedeagus which lacks a phallobase, so that parameres are articulated directly with the base of the penis and sometimes to each other. This type occurs in the suborders Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga.
adecticous
Without functional mandibles.
adenotrophic
Viviparity.
adfrontal area
The area between the adfrontal sutures and the ecdysal lines on the larval head.
aedeagus
The external genital apparatus in Coleoptera. Including a phallobase, parameres (sometimes absent or fused together) and a penis containing an invaginated endophallus, but excluding the genital capsule.
aestivate
To pass the summer in a dormant state.
alar squama
Central or middle of the three outgrowths seen at the base of wings in various flies.
alate
Having wings. c.f. apterous.
alitrunk
Thorax and propodeum of narrow waisted hymenopterans.
allopatric speciation
allo = Greek for ‘other’, ‘another’. patria = Greek for ‘country’ (fatherland) speciation between geographically separated populations<
alula
Outer of the three outgrowths seen at the base of wings in various flies.
ampulla
A sclerotised structure on the inner face of the vlava in certain male moths.
amplexiform
A type of wing coupling in which an enlarged humeral area of the hind wing is broadly overlapped by the fore wing.
anal area
(of hind wing). The area lying between the anal fold and the wing base.
anal hooks
Hooked or clubbed setae at the posterior end of the pupa, used to attach the pupa to the cocoon or a pad of silk.
anal lobe
(of hind wing). The lobe formed by a posterior incision near the wing base between veins AA and AP and often at the end of the anal fold; the anal area when it is delimited apically by an incision or emargination.
anal shield
A sclerotised mid-dorsal plate on abdominal segment 10 of the larva.
anal tube
The membranous posterior end of the intestinal tract.
anelytrous
Without a trace of elytra.
annulate
Having rings.
annulus
A ring of membrane, sclerite or pigment surrounding a joint or segment. (pl. annuli) eg. the Tortricinae have 2 annuli of scales per flagellar sement.
anteclypeus
A transverse sclerite on the anterior border of the frontoclypeus in the larva, with which the labrum articulates.
antenna
There are 3 main divisions of the antenna, the scape which is the basal segment containing the muscles; the pedicel which is filled with a mass of scolopophorous sensilla, called Johnston’s organ; and the remainder being the multisegmented flagellum. Functionally they are organs of chemoreception, thermoreception and hygroreception.
antenna cleaner
A concavity lined with hairs and/or stout setae and located near the apex of the protibia or mesotibia. Occurs in taxa with more or less filiform antennae, and used to clean the antenna by sliding it over the hairs.
antennal cavity
(of prothorax). A prothoracic cavity for housing the whole antenna or a portion of the antenna (usually the club).
antennal club
An enlarged portion of the antennal apex, consisting of a variable number of antennomeres (often 3). In an incrassate, antenna the antennomeres gradually enlarge towards to apex, but if there is an abrupt change in length or width at some point, then the antennomeres beyond this are considered to be part of the club.
antennal fossa
Saucer-like concavity surrounding the antennal insertion.
antennal groove
See Subantennal groove.
antennal insertion
Point of attachment for the antennae, consisting of an opening in the head capsule, sometimes with a reinforced sclerotized ring.
antennifer
Probably a segment of an antenna
antennomere
Antennal segment; including scape, pedicel and flagellomeres.
antenodal veins
In dragonfly or damselfly wings, the small cross-veins between the base and the nodus.
anterior angles
(of pronotum). The fore corners of the pronotal disc. These may be rounded, angulate or produced forward, forming rounded or acute processes.
anterior process
(of metendosternite). An extension of the apical portion of the metendosternite which usually bears the anterior tendons.
anterior tendons
(of metendosternite). A pair of tendons borne on the anterior process or the lateral arms of the metendosternite.
anterolateral callosity
(of pronotum). More or less flattened or callus-like area at or very near the anterolateral corner of the pronotum, and often containing a gland opening.
annulate
With ring-like markings
apex
Tip of the wing or other structure.
apical
Around the apex (the tip), (apicad). An adjective (or adverb) denoting position near or movement toward the apex of a body part. The apex of the head or pronotum is at the anterior end while that of the abdomen or an elytron is at the posterior end; on the legs or antennae, apical and distal are synonymous.
apical area
(of hind wing). A rather vaguely defined area of the hind wing apical to the ends of the radial and medial bars and last r-m crossvein.
apicale
(of tegmen). The apical portion of the sheath-like, tenebrionoid tegmen which is divided transversely. This appears to be formed by the fusion of the two parameres. Also called apical piece or paramere.
apical piece
See apicale.
apical spurs
Diptera. Short, stout bristles that vary in number and are often present on the ventral surface of the tibia.
apodemes
Sclerotised infoldings projecting into the body to provide strength and muscle attachment. They may be called endotergites, endopleurites or endosternites, according to location or origin, and are sometimes referred to as apophyses, furcae, phragmata or spinae based mainly on shape.
apodous
Without legs
apolysis
The separation of the new epidermis from the cuticle in preparation for ecdysis.
aposemantic colouration
Warning colouration.
appendix
Short vein, especially that seen as a short continuation after a main vein has changed direction.
apterygote
Any of the primitive insects which have never developed wings during their history- bristletails
apterous
Completely wingless.
arbovirus
Term applied to a virus that can replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates.
archipine
?
arculus
In Odonata. Taxanomically significant wing vien distally enclosing the median space.
areola
A small opening or space. A small area between things.
arista
A bristle-like structure or appendage. In Diptera it refers to the antenna when it is fine and bristle-like. When stouter and more rigid it is called a style.
arolium
Small, scale-like pad between the tarsal claws (Orthoptera Caelifera) (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)
attini
Foliage cutting ants which feed on fungi grown on cut foliage, subfamily Myrmicinae
axillary area
Of wing. A topographical area of the wing, basal, and which contains the articular sclerites.